Sunday, June 15, 2008

Perunthalaivar Kamarajar History (1903 - 1934)

Virudupatti - as called Virudhunagar now-a-days had a census of 16000 people. A tank is important to that city. Sulochana Nadar Street is on the Western side of the tank. The house of “Nattanmakarar“Sulochana Nadar is in that street. Kamaraj who saved the prestige of our country by controlling the famine etc., born only in that house in the year 1903 ' July 15th.

The Way the Name Has Come:
During those days the people of Nadar group at Virdhupatti had many branches. "Naattanmaikarar" branch and “Megavarnam" branch are the most important one in that group.

A marriage between Chinnappa Nadar of Megavarnam group and Parvathi Ammal, sister of Sulochana Nadar - Naattanmaikarar group took place. As they had no children they (Chinnappa Nadar and Parvathy) adopted Kumarasamy who belonged Megavarnam group.

Kumarasamy married Sivakami the daughter of Sulochana Nadar ( Parvathy Ammal brother's daughter) . Kumarasamy - Sivakami Ammal delivered a male child in 15th July of 1903. The child was first named as Kamatchi by its grand mother Parvathy Ammal. Since she worshipped Goddess Meenakshi she named the child as Kamatchi. Though all called the child as Kamatchi with love and affection Sivakami Ammal used to call the child as Raja. Then all became to call the child as Raja. Kumarasami, who thought that the name of the god should also be in the name of his son mingled both the names (Kamatchi + Raja) and named him as KAMARAJA. Four years after the birth of Kamaraja his sister Nagammal was born.

Kamaraj - A Lesson:
The school which educated Kamaraj, he took the school as a lesson and became a lesson to the nation. According tot the custom of those days Kamaraja was admitted in the school at his 5th year, the next day of “Saraswathy Pooja " , dressed in coat and dhothy. As per the custom of those days, the whole family members joined together and took Kamarajar in the school. The first teacher for Kamaraj was Velayutham. He was knows as “Lame Teacher “in the public because of his lamed fingers of the leg.

The “Lame Teacher School “is nothing but a Varandah School (Thinnai Pallikudam) Velayutham equally treated the rich and poor. Basics of mathematics and other lessons were thought to Kamarajar here.

After some period he was admitted in Yenadhi Narayana Vidhya Salai. A teacher by name Murugaiah conducted this school. Here only Kamaraj learned to read and write Tamil. Next year Kamaraj was admitted in Virudupatti High School - Chatria Vidhya Salai from Kasukadi Street School. Chatria Vidhya Salai is the only high school in Virdhupatti which has the classes’ upto School final

It was called as “Fist Rice School” (Pidi Arici Pallikudam) by all. Free Education was given here since 1888. Each and every family in the Virdhupatti had donated a fist full of Rice to this school every day hence the name of “Fist Rice School ".

The school was run by “Magamai “a sort of donation. Hence free education was given since 1888. Kamaraj, when he became the Chief Minister has brought Free Education System in all high schools throughout the State and gave free education to the students. Chatira Vidhya Salai, the school in which Kamaraj studied was the forefoot for Free Education. Took the school in which studied as a lesson and brought his dreams to true gave free education and became a lesson to nation and thus became a Leader who gave the eye of education.

Growth Of The Plant Can Be Know From Its Embryo:
One afternoon - in the sixth year of Kamaraj when he joined in Chatriya Vidhya Salai his father Kumarasami lied down in the bed due to unbearable headache. The next day he expired. The sudden demise of the person who led the family by wholesale dealings in coconuts had given a severe shock and pain to Sivakami Ammal. Kamaraj did not attain the age to recover her mother from her sorrowful mood. He also could not understand irreparable loss happened to the family.

Short while ago his grand father Chinnappa Nadar expired. Continued death of Kamaraj's father, the family knew not what to do.

Kamaraj was only the star of hope to the family. Karuppiah Nadar maternal uncle of Kamaraj was running a cloth store at Virdhupatti. It because his duty to help Kamaraj's family.

Ganesh Chathurthi was celebrated at Chatria Vidhya Salai, where Kamaraj studied. During that period holy poojas were performed. Students used to join joyfully. Students were given Prasadams. Money was collected from every student for this pooja. In that day's pooja one - and - a - half anas were given by the student.

Kamaraj also gave his share. He went to pooja and prayed the God too. At the end Prasadams was given with a severe instruction they should get prasadam only in Q. But students were pushing each other to get the prasadam and went home in a joyfull mood.

Kamaraj did not entangle himself in the rush, he stood in a corner. He stood in that corner with hope of getting the prasadam for his share of money. He was noticed by the person who distributed prasadams when the crowd was thin. Kamaraj got only a little quantity and even in that some items were missing.

He went home with what he got. His grand mother saw the little quantity and questioned him where others got a large amount. Kamaraj asked her back why should they given him a little quantity where he has given a equal share of money and has he to fight for it like others. His grand mother said however he should have got it first like others. Kamaraj questioned back to his Grand mother that he too gave money like others and was it the duty of the teacher to him his part of the share properly and why he did not do it.

Grandmother shut her mouth on hearing the rebutting questions. It was a new experience to the old lady. It was also quite new to her the nature of Kamaraj that differed from others of his age group. Perhaps she knew not that Kamaraj laid a foundation for his future to fight against the big shots that thronged for power and status and spread the equality.

Political Call:-
He stopped his education at his 12th year when he was studying sixth standard. He was at Trivandrum and Bodinayakanur in shops for few years. His attention was not in business and he started concentrating in freedom fighters speech. So he came to Virudhunagar.

He used to read newspapers and shared the news with his friends. Then K.S.Muthusami was his intimate friend.

It was the period when congress committee was going towards freedom fight. There were two groups in congress. One was optimizers and the other one extremist.

Dr.Vardarajulu Naidu, V.Kalyana Sundara Mudaliar and George Joseph conducted meetings at Virdhupatti and delivered speeches in which Kamaraj participated.

It was the end of first world war. He read the newspapers daily and saw the invitation of Gandhiji for Dharna against Roulette Act on 6th April of 1919. It was the period when V.O.C. navigated own ship , due to Home Rule Movement the British duped the people by dual Government and caused Punjab Massacre - Kamaraj became a full time worker of Congress.

Turning point:
Punjab Massacre made a turning point in Kamaraj's life and his aim was to put an end to British rule.

The family members sent Kamaraj to his uncle at Trivandrum with a fear that he may involve himself in the political uproar. There too he joined Vaikam revolution but was not arrested. On seeing this he was brought back to Virudhunagar by his uncle Karuppaiah Nadar.

Kamaraj entered again in Law Disobedience in 1920 when Non-Co-Operative Movement led by Gandhiji.

Teacher's View
Mr.Sargunam the teacher of Kamaraj knew that Kamaraj will be having a bright future in politics.

He said that in 40 years experience of teaching profession where 3 generation learned. Only Mr.Kamaraj earned a prestige to Mother , Native place , and teacher and his is the only Model student " I used to advise that little boy who ran to me on my call , born in a simple family not having interest in studies to study well . But he was interested only in Dharna, Gandhiji etc., and used to propaganda the same between students. On seeing this I came to a conclusion in one day he will take a big post in politics in future. "

As to his expectation Kamaraj stopped his education and entered in politics seriously. In due course his student became a respectable SIR KAMARAJ. He found no change in Kamaraj's simplicity, affection and obedience.

When Kamaraj visited along with high Government officials, few Ministers and Big-shots saw the teacher amid the crowd enquired his welfare and introduced him to the surrounded. There was no change in his manners.

The Teacher's mind was overwhelmed when thinking that a person who born in an ordinary family came up by hard work and in notable position in the nation was his student.

Political Services:

Only on reading the speeches in Newspapers about Self Government Patriotism sprang the mind of Kamaraj. He participated in General Meeting conducted in the Town. Some days he organized general meetings. He was attracted in political strikes. He became a member in Tamilnadu Congress. He gathered public for Congress propaganda. He collected money from public at the Railway station, public places, market etc., He organized meetings and promoted patriotism.

During those days he explained politics to his friends. Though there were incidents of stone throwing at his meetings he never retreated. Rather his interest grew more. According to some people Virdhunagar was known as “Fort of Justice Party ". This imagination got demolished. He sends friends to the meetings of Justice Party and never failed to rebut at his meetings.

Since he developed patriotism in the public against Justice Party he was in the vision of police. It was induced by some of Justice Party. He also conducted meetings in the near by villages and towns. He used to go by in the evening and returned at mid-night. Sometimes he spent the night only with a cup of water. He used to go to Madurai often which is 27 miles form Virdhunagar. He engaged himself in selling Kadhi. His national work had become a challenge to Justice Party.

Kamaraj participated in the Non Co-operation Movement in 1920. Gandhiji stopped it all in a sudden. But not in Tamilnadu. Followers of Congress staged Dharna before "Arcak” Shop. His severe participation made his mother to afraid as he was the only son. Hence she and his maternal uncle Karuppaiah Nadar proposed to get him married. They arranged everything including the Bride and the date of marriage. Kamaraj returned from out station and saw the arrangement. His patriotic sense made him wild. For the time-being the proposals was stopped but not for ever .Again it came up. But Kamaraj was against of everything and he stood as a bachelor till the end of his life and served for the nation.

He was selected as a state committee member one among the five in 1922.

Patriotism & Broken Friendship

Hurdles and plots gave him interest and strength. He got wounded by belie stones but never discouraged. He took it as his daily routines. He was insulted by his enemies. Even he was called as a Black sheep. But they came to him at a latter stage after independence for their benefits. He never went down as expected by his enemies.

He faced so many hurdles; troubles caused by his enemies but never lost him. Once, a friend who helped Kamaraj on many occasions was addicted to 'Arrack'. When Kamaraj came to know this he avoided his friendship.

Singing Warrior

In 1923 he staged a Dharana before Toddy shop. All were arrested at the Congress office except him since was not on the spot as he got out to supervise the Dharna. He very much felt for that.

During those days there was a ban to carry knife more than 6" blades. Kamaraj decided to disobey to that order of British and conducted a revolution. That spread to Madurai. To conduct the same at Madurai he prepared 5 Swords. People came from Madurai to Virudhunagar. When the procession was about to start some hesitated. A sword prepared for them was with Kamaraj. On seeing then he sang a son of Bharathi and started dancing. It shacked the entire town of Virdhunagar Swords gave clinging sound.

The then Law minister Sir.C.P.Ramasami Iyer allowed carrying swords places except Malabar Region in order to stop the revolution in Tamilnadu.

After the Non-Co-Operation Movement a problem arises. Whether to go to Assembly or not. Desabandhu Chitranjandas, Mothilal Nehru, S.Srinivasa Iyengar, Bulabai Desai and Sathya Moorthy joined together. Started Swaraj Party. They want to enter into Parliament. But Rajaji opposed it. Kamaraj obeyed the decision of Congress and did not work with Sathyamoorthy.

In 1926 election he went Sri Vaikundam, Nasereth and Arel along with the followers.

Kamaraj came forward to conduct a revolution after the arrest of leaders like Saminatha- Mudaliar, Somayajulu since trying to remove the statute of Gen.Neel who tortured the participants of Army Revolution in 1857.

In 1927, when Gandhiji came to Chennai Kamaraj consulted him about the revolution for removing the statute of Gen .Neel. Gandhiji advised him to do it without any force just like pelting clay over the statute. But it was stopped due to boycotting Simon Commission.

Kamaraj conducted a conference under the name of “Indian Democratic Congress " presided by Nehruji who came to Chennai in 1927 after finishing the tour of Europe.

On 1937 as one day the statute of Gen.Neel was removed and kept at Museum. When it was questioned at the Assembly Rajaji gave a Brick but answer the statute is of their own and could be kept anywhere. There came a full stop to the matter.

In 1928 a commission under the leadership of Sir John Simon came to India. All the political parties started boycotting the same and flagged the Black flag. With an uproar asking the commission to return back. The Government handled the situation severely. Nehruji was assaulted. The 64 years old Lala Rajpathi Rai got wounded and died in the prison.

The commission came to Madurai. Nobles patterned the Government joined at Thirumalai Naicker Palace. Patriotic public of Madurai aroused.

Thousands of people with black flag in hands invaded the Mahal shouting the Simon to go back. They were stopped by the ruling powers. Kamaraj came there in a car in which a Tricolor flag was hoisted. Along with him there came the famous Congress leader George Joseph. They observed the situation and organized the volunteers. Kamaraj and George Jospeh led them. Police got stunned on seeing the crowd.

In 1929 the Conservative party lost the election and the Labour party came to rule. At that time Jatheenthranath went on fast opposing the way in which political prisoners were treated in Jail in India. He last his life in that fast. This provoked Kamaraj. He preferred independence when Gandhiji was alive.

Marriage of Friend

In 1930 K.S.Muthusami, a friend of Kamaraj had been to Kaitharu on the requisition of his uncle and happened to marry his daughter under unavoidable circumstances for which he invited Kamaraj. Kamaraj too went to the marriage Police shadowed him. It was usual on those days a police tail was kept behind him wherever he goes.

In March 1930 Gandhiji started Civil Disobedience Movement to break Salt Laws. People marched to Dandi under the leadership of Gandhiji in North and Vedharanyam in South under the leadership of Rajaji. The whole country joined together and shouted to abolish tax on salt. Government took stringer action. News papers censored. Leaders were arrested . Power of Gandhiji was known to the world. Public were lathi charged. Western countries hated the arrogant behavior of British government. Even the British people condemned the act of the Government.

Kamaraj took part in Salt Sathyagraha. He was arrested by the police. He was imprisoned for 2 years. It was his first arrest. He was kept in Alipuram jail. The prisoners at Alipuram jail were release 1 hour a day. There was a tree in with a hole in that garden. Kamaraj wrote a slip for his needs and kept in the hole. Kumbakkonam Goplakrishnan used to go there take out the paper and acted according to the instructions. It went on for several months.

The jail authorities were in surprise they did not know how Kamaraj could able to get his needs. But they came to know about the hole in that tree and tried trap Gopalakrishnan. But Gopalakrishnan escaped from there and came back to Kumbakkonam, where he was arrested for the first time. On hearing the arrest of Kamaraj his Grand mother took ill. She was bedridden. Volunteers of Virudhunagar Congress were thirsty for his release. Duraisamy Nadar other went to Alipuram jail informing about the health condition of his grandmother and asked him to come on parole. But he refused. He was released in 1931 under Gandhji - Irwin pact. He came to Virudhunagar . Public took him in a procession from railway station to his house which a mile away. Such a huge

Procession was never seen at Virudhunagar there before. He was asked to address a few words to the public. He accepted. In his address he thanked the public for the felicitation and asked them to pray god that he should not get proud. It was his first speech.

His first stage speech was at Elinga Naaiackan Patti which was 5 miles away from Virudhunagar.

Habit Of Having Folded Towel On Shoulder
Health condition of Parvathy Ammal became worse. The desire to see the grandson had made her to hold her life. Few days after the release of Kamaraj his grand mother expired.

Kamaraj performed the cremation. There was a change in him after that. A week after the death of his grand mother he used to have a folded towel on his shoulder.

Work In Congress


Kamaraj was called as a King Maker by foreigners 35 years ago.

Since as he was having the capacity of doing anything in the party he had this title. He did this achievement in 1931 itself. Congress committee conference was held at Madurai in 1931. There were two parties in Congress then. One was headed by Sathyamoorthy and the other by Rajaji. Poor were on the side of Sathyamoorthy. Hence others neglected this group. Kamaraj got wild of this. He supported Sathyamoorthy. As Sathyamoorthy was the leader of the Conference he was taken in a procession in which the group of Rajaji did not participated. After the meeting the election for Tamilnadu Congress Party president ship was conducted.

Dr.Varadarajulu Naidu, Thiru. V.Kaliyana Sundara Mudaliar, E.V.R.Periyar and Srinivasa Iyengar left Congress. At the end of the conference there was a proposal to elect Rajaji as President of P.C.C. and Sathya moorthy as Vice president. Accordingly Rajaji was elected as President. But in the case of Vice-President Sathyamoorthy was elected as Vice President only after some tussle as Rajaji's group betrayed the proposal. Sathyamoorthy's group captured the working committee.

The working committee was completely taken over by the group of Sathyamoorthy and Rajaji had to act only as a President without any power in that year since Sathyamoorthy's group had the full control of working committee. This had happened only because of the sincere and severe work of Kamaraj. This task was not a big affair to Kamaraj who was able to control a wild elephant at his boyhood. The working committee had the power to decide the fate of the party.

Cases Filed

In 1931 Round Table Conference was held at London. Gandhiji participated in that. But the result was nil. Again Britishers handled oppressed in India. Many leaders were arrested. Case was filed against Kamaraj. He refused to pay the penalty. He was imprisoned for an year. Kamaraj was in the jail at Trichy. Later he was transferred to Vellore Jail. There he meet Jaidevkapur and Kamalnath Divari who were friends of Bagath Singh , who were imprisoned in case of Bagath Singh.

Since Kamaraj met the prisoners who were arrested in the case for plot a case for plot was filed against him in 1933.

Police tried to include the name of Kamaraj in the case of Composite State Plot under the name of Chennai Plot. Police pleaded that Kamaraj, Arunachalam and others tried to shoot Sir John Anderson, Governor of Bengal who was staying at Ooty, and for that Kamaraj gave 2 revolvers to Arunachalam. Since this case failed they filed another case of Plot against him. It was Bomb blast at Srivilliputhur - Virudhunagar Police station.

In this case K.S.Muthusamy was accused, Kamaraj the second and Reporter Marriappan as third accused. Narayanasami as fourth accused. Venkatachalam turned as approver.

At Virudhunagar Bombay show was conducted. Muthusami was in that show upto night 2'o clock along with the Sub-Inspector of Police Mr.Anantha Ramakrishnan. Only on that night Bomb throw case was fabricated.

A C.I.D. Inspector by name Thothari Iyengar came from Madras to fabricate this false case The Sub-Inspector Anantha Ramakrishnan was instructed to five false witnesses. But he refused. Hence he was transferred to some other place. D.S.P., Sivakasi, Parthasarathy Iyengar (Later he was the I.G. of Madras State) took active part in fabricating the case.

Murder Attempt

In 1936 the life of Kamaraj had been a turning point of Tamilnadu. At the Congress committee election held at Karaikudi Sathyamoorthy was elected as President and Kamaraj as Secretary. All activities were done with the help and suggestion of Kamaraj. In 1936 Pandit Nehru toured Tamilnadu. Sathayamoorthy and Kamaraj went along with him. British Government conducted the first election with a hope that the Justice Party would defeat Congress and that may result loosing of Victory throughout India. But they did not know that this election would intricate the youth for Independence and the control over party by Sathyamoorthy wood give many in formations. Also they did not know that this would seed the youth Kamaraj would fight for Independence.

Acid Throw Against Kamaraj

In 1937 Assembly election held Kamaraj contested from Sathur. Virudhunagar came under Sathur constituency. There were two constituencies in Sathur. One is reserve and the other is general. Kamaraj in Congress and Ramasamy in Justice Party contested in General constituency.

In reserve constituency Manickam of Congress party contested against Meenambal Sivaraj. Ramasamy withdrew his nomination against Kamaraj before election. Kamaraj was only the candidate. Even then election was conducted. In those days each party was given a colour. Congress was given Yellow color ballot box.

Election propaganda was on. 3 candidates for 2 constituencies. Kamaraj and Manickam won.

Kamaraj was taken on procession in a Chariot around the tank. When the chariot went on the Southern bank of the tank nitric acid bulbs were hurled against Kamaraj. But they did not fall on Kamaraj. Villagers got wild. Procession reached Desabandhu maidaan.

Rajaji's Plot And Kamaraj's Disappointment

Kamaraj expected Sathyamoorthy to win in the assembly election and form ministry. As Rajaji entered in the last stage it did not happen. Sathyamoorthy wanted to contest in the graduates’ constituency. But friends like Hindu Srinivasan and others asked Sathyamoorthy to give up that constituency for Rajaji and Sathyamoorthy magnanimously gave it to Rajaji. In Central ministry opposition member struggled of Sathyamoorthy's talents and speech. So he was asked to be a member there itself. But an assurance was given to him to include him in Chennai Ministry if formed.

Sathyamoorthy left to Delhi before formation of Ministry. Before leaving he meet Rajaji. Rajaji asked him not to contest for assembly since he would be included in the ministry through council.

On the way to Delhi Sathyamoorthy met Sardar Patel. Patel informed him that the ministry at Madras headed by Rajaji was formed without Sathyamoorthy. T.S.S. Rajan was nominated for council and appointed as a minister. Sathyamoorthy informed Patel about Rajaji's assurance and how he cheated him. It was a great disappointment to Kamaraj. He thought they revenged his Political teacher.


Change in State History

In that year State Congress meeting was held at Batlagundu. For Muthurang Mudaliar's victory Kamaraj took special interest.

Municipal election was conducted at Virudhunagar Congress contested in 24 wards and won in 22 wards. Kamaraj won from the 7th ward. All the 21 councilors compelled Kamaraj to be the Chairman but he refused. Sankarapandia Nadar became Chairman.

In 1940 election for T.N.C.P. President Sathyamoorthy nominated Kamaraj . Rajaji nominated Kovai C.P.Subbiah..

Kamaraj got 103 votes and won by 3 votes. Those 3 votes changed the history of Tamilnadu. A man who started his political life as a volunteer in 1919 became a President to the same party in 21 years. Once he was elected as a President public were interested in knowing his life history. They were attracted in his simplicity and sacrifice.

To help Kamaraj Sathyamoorthy took the post of Secretary.

During 2nd World War Aurther Hope, the Governor of Madras collected war fund from public. Kamaraj toured all over the state asking the public not to give war fund to foreigner. Hence war fund collection was disturbed. So Kamaraj was arrested under Security Act and sent to Vellore Jail. This was his 3rd Arrest.

People who come for Sathyagraha should have got the approval of Gandhiji. When Kamaraj went to Gandhiji with one such list for Gandhiji's approval he was arrested in the train at Gudur railway station.

According to the individual Sathyagraha started by Gandhiji all municipal chairman should go to jail by breaking the law. Accordingly Sankarapanida Nadar Chairman of Virudhunagar went to jail.

One Day Chairman! Resigned Next Day

Prior to his arrest Kamaraj sent a notice that Janab Ubayathulla of Vellore should be the President of P.C.C. Madras State.

As Virudhunagar Chairman Sankarapandia Nadar was also arrested Chairman's post was vacant. Regarding electing P.C.C. Madras state president Ubayathulla sent a telegram to Dhanushkodi Nadar. But a reply was sent to him stating that the election of Chairman would be amicably settled.

Vice-Chairman R.Gurusami fixed the date as 31st May 1941 for Chairman's election. Kamaraj who was in the prison at Vellore was unanimously elected as Chairman.

Before this Bengal Lion Desabandhu Chittranjan Das was elected as Mayor when he was in the prison. Likewise Kamaraj too was elected as Chairman when he was in the jail. People were proud of this.

In the first week of March 1942, a month after the Chairman's election Kamaraj was released. He came to Virudhunagar in the 2nd week. A warm welcome was given to him.

Municipal council meeting was held on 16th of March under the presidentship of Vice-Chairman 90th item of Agenda was taken for consideration and recorded. Kamaraj as a Chairman came to the meeting and sat in the Chairman's chair. He recorded 91st item. He addressed to Councilors thanking them for having elected him as Chairman. But as he had some other important affairs to look after he was unable to continue as Chairman and tendered his resignation.

A 9 months' Chairman who conducted the council meeting for 9 minutes addressed like this “A person who holds a post even if it is an honorary one, should act properly. If he is not able to function properly he should not hold that post."


Sathish said...

hi..... Nice Blog...

padmini parthasarathy said...

very useful with lots of information...

preethi lakshmipathy naidu said...

A GOOD AND INFORMATIVE BLOG........................